Many exercisers flock to running for the cardiovascular benefit and high calorie burn. Running fans also love it for stress reduction and mental well-being. The downside is that running can be especially challenging if you are overweight. Don’t be discouraged. If you want to run, there are safe and effective ways to incorporate it into your exercise routine.
Keeping your joints safe.
Running is often blamed for knee damage, but research says otherwise. Many long-term studies show that running doesn’t appear to cause knee damage in people without previous knee injuries. A 21-year study conducted at Stanford University showed that the knees of those who ran were no more or less healthy than the knees of non-runners. Some research shows that activities like running may even benefit the joints. The pounding action can stimulate proteins to make cartilage stronger while also flushing out toxins. As with most types of exercise, moderation is key. Running at fast paces and for long distances can increase risk of knee arthritis.
While running isn’t directly linked to knee damage, being overweight or obese is. Obese women have almost four times the risk of developing arthritis of the knee when compared to non-obese women, and obese men have five times the risk. When you run, the knee absorbs a force up to eight times your body weight. If you are more than 20 pounds overweight, avoid jumping into a vigorous running routine, but this doesn’t mean running is off limits. The key to is to start slow and, as the weight comes off, you can begin to increase your time, distance, and speed.
Taking it one step at a time.
Check with your healthcare provider to ensure that you have a green light to increase the duration and intensity of your exercise routine. Once you have approval, the following walking program is ideal for someone who can walk three miles, three to five times per week and wants to eventually incorporate running.
Attempt a frequency of 5 times / wk
Quicken your pace by ~1 min / mile / wk
Increase distance by ½ mile / week
The key to progressing your exercise program is to vary frequency, intensity, and distance independently (don't increase more than one variable per week). Once you can walk four miles at a 15-minute pace on most days of the week, you can start integrating higher intensity intervals with hills and inclines to increase the calories burned during your workout.
Once you are within reach of your goal weight, you can start integrating jogging intervals. When you begin your jogging program, aim to include these walk/jog sessions three to five days per week. The first two weeks, you will walk four minutes and jog one minute. You will repeat this five minute interval six times, until you have exercised for 30 minutes. It may be tempting to jog more, but sticking to the program will ensure that your stamina builds gradually, decreasing burnout.
Every two weeks, walk one minute less and jog one minute more. Repeat any of the weeks as necessary based on how quickly your fitness is improving, but do not skip any of the weeks. Take it slow and stick with the program. In eight to 10 weeks, you will be running a full 30 minutes.
Shaved ice is sure to cool you off on a hot day. You can cut calories and increase nutrients by swapping flavored syrups with real fruit juice. A large cup of shaved ice topped with four ounces of 100% pineapple juice has 60 calories.
Honey Iced Tea
Honey has slightly more calories per teaspoon than granulated sugar, but its complexity and concentrated sweetness can add a new flavor to your drink even when using less. Sweeten your iced tea by dissolving one teaspoon of honey in four ounces of strong-brewed tea that is slightly warm or at room temperature. Pour over ice and add six ounces of cold water. The final glass has only 21 calories.
The mojito is a great poolside party drink that can be adjusted to lower the calories while keeping that familiar flavor. In a cocktail shaker, combine ice, one ounce of rum, one ounce of lime juice, one teaspoon of sugar, and one tablespoon of chopped fresh mint leaves. Shake to mix well. Strain and pour over ice. Top off with four ounces of club soda for a 90-calorie drink.
Fruit & Yogurt Shakes
The more ingredients in your shakes and smoothies, the higher the number of calories, so keep it simple. All you really need for a delicious, thick smoothie is yogurt and fruit. Blend together ½ cup non-fat vanilla yogurt and ½ cup of fresh or frozen strawberries for a smoothie snack with only 94 calories.
If you enjoy beer, summer cookouts simply aren’t complete without it. Fortunately, there are plenty of light beers available that fit the low-calorie criteria. In a 12-ounce serving, the following beers all contain fewer than 100 calories:
Budweiser Select 55
You can cool off with a quick single serving of lemonade for only 60 calories. Combine four ounces of fresh squeezed lemon juice with 2 teaspoons of sugar. Stir to dissolve the sugar. Add ice and six ounces of cold water. Garnish with lemon slices.
Skip the extras like whipped cream and flavored syrups and you can enjoy an occasional iced coffee without blowing your calorie budget. Starbucks’s grande iced coffee with non-fat milk contains only 25 calories.
Sparkling Water with Summer Berries
Adding fresh fruit to your water is a low-calorie way to boost flavor. Add ¼ cup of sliced fresh strawberries and ¼ cup fresh blueberries to a large, 16-ounce glass of club soda. The flavor will grow stronger as the water sits. If you have frozen fruit instead of fresh, it will also serve as ice to keep your water cold. The drink contains 32 calories if you eat the fruit when you are finished sipping.
Before you grab a plate and jump in the food line, take a look at what is offered. Results of observational research conducted by Dr. Brian Wansink of Cornell University report that this practice is a characteristic shared by thinner people versus those who are overweight. Circle the buffet table and put all of the foods into three categories -- savor, sample, and skip. Take an appropriate portion of the foods you must try, take a taste of those that spark your curiosity, and skip foods that are not special to the occasion.
Use a smaller plate.
That same study by Wansink also showed that thinner people were about seven times more likely to select a smaller plate when eating at a buffet. So sneak to the dessert table for your plate and keep your portions under control. If you are hosting the cookout, offer your guests a few sizes of dinner plates to encourage healthier eating.
Grab the furthest seat.
When you sit with food in sight, or worse, within arms reach, it can tempt you to eat more. After you fill your plate, grab a seat as far from the food as possible. Making food even slightly more inconvenient may help you rethink the idea of a second helping.
Contribute lighter options.
Many parties are potluck affairs so take the opportunity to bring a healthier dish. Simple changes to your favorite picnic foods, such as substituting brown mustard or Greek yogurt in mayonnaise-based dressings and adding extra vegetables to a pasta salad, reduces calories and fat without sacrificing the familiar flavor. (See Healthy Tips to Lighten Up Picnic Foods.)
Know your strategy.
If you want to stay on track, but have no plan in place, you set yourself up for overeating. Your strategy doesn’t have to include denying yourself all of your favorite foods. Decide how they will work into your current eating and exercise plan. Enjoy a healthy breakfast and a morning workout the day of the party. Plan what and how much you will eat. You may not know exactly what will be served, but making a plan to have one serving of dessert and one alcoholic beverage will help you stay on track.
Be aware of emotional eating.
Everything from happiness and excitement to anxiety and stress can lead to emotional eating. Know how you react in social situations. Sometimes they can cause anxiety, especially if you are meeting new people. Simply taking notice of how you feel and not allowing it to cause you to graze the food table will help you avoid overeating.
Working hard to lose weight and then failing to reach your goals is frustrating. These are 8 weight loss mistakes you might be making and how to avoid them.
Focusing only on diet and exercise
Diet and exercise are only part of the weight loss equation. Stress levels and sleep patterns play a role in your success. One study showed that subjects who slept six to eight hours per night and who reported lower stress levels were more likely to reach a 10 pound weight loss goal. Adrenaline, corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), and cortisol are hormones released in response to stress. While adrenaline and CRH supress appetite for a short time, cortisol increases appetite and has a longer lasting effect after a stressful situation. Research shows that people who sleep fewer than six hours per night also have elevated cortisol. To make matters worse, lack of sleep also causes an increase in the hormone, ghrelin (increases appetite), and a decrease in leptin (suppresses appetite).
All or nothing
A healthy lifestyle is not an all-or-nothing endeavor. You can’t let one bump in the road send you on a downward spiral of overeating and skipped workouts. Healthy habits such as eating more nutritious foods, controlling portion sizes, and exercising regularly must fit into the natural ups and downs of life. If you attend a dinner party and enjoy dessert, the next day cut back a few calories at each meal. If a late meeting forces you to cancel your workout on Monday, don’t give up the rest of the week. Add 10 minutes of exercise time on Tuesday through Friday to make up for it.
Not eating enough
For many people, weight loss plans include drastically cutting calories or skipping meals. Both practices lead to excessive hunger followed by overeating. According to nutrition and weight loss guidelines set by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), women should not consume fewer than 1200 calories per day, and men should have no fewer than 1700 calories per day. Doing so may be detrimental to body functions and metabolism.
Drinking your calories
Research shows that we often fail to compensate for the calories we drink. For example, if you drink a 250-calorie sweetened coffee instead of eating food as a snack, it’s unlikely that you will decrease the calories in your lunch or dinner to balance out the extra intake. The consumption of high calorie drinks (energy drinks, alcohol, coffees, sodas, and juices) make it easy for your daily calorie intake to creep upward, preventing weight loss. Record all of your drinks and any extras you add to them such as cream, sugar, or flavored syrups. Remember that even occasional sips throughout the day count, too.
Underestimating portion sizes
When following a weight loss plan, it’s important to weigh or measure your food to learn what a healthy portion looks like. This makes it much easier to estimate accurately when you are not dining at home. You can also use common household items to help estimate your food intake. (See Tips for Estimating Serving Sizes)
Forcing yourself to love an exercise
There are too many forms of physical activity out there to force yourself to love one that is not a good fit. Just because you heard that indoor cycling burns a lot of calories or your best friend loves the new kickboxing class doesn’t mean that these classes have to work for you. Try as many options as possible when starting out, and think outside the gym. There is nothing wrong with a weekly exercise program that includes 30 minutes jumping on the trampoline with your children, a 60-minute family bike ride, 45 minutes of yard work, 60 minutes of yoga in the living room, and a 30-minute swim.
Faith in the fads
It’s tempting to believe in the promise of quick-fix eating plans and supplements. Despite claims, only a healthy lifestyle that includes nutritious food and exercise will result in losing weight and keeping it off. Cutting out food groups, detox diets, and diet pills will not give you lasting success. These methods are not sustainable, and any weight you lose is sure to return.
Expecting too much, too soon
Weight loss takes time. In the first week or two, you may see a quick drop in weight due to water loss. Once you begin to lose fat, changes in the scale will slow. Don’t get discouraged. Experts recommend a weight loss of no more than two pounds per week for health and for keeping it off long term. Stick with it, the time will pass, and before you know it you will reach your goal weight.
Malnutrition occurs when there is a lack of necessary nutrients. It is often associated with starvation, but it is now evident that malnutrition applies to overeating as well as undereating. It is possible for a person to become overweight while also failing to get important nutrients.
Macronutrients, micronutrients, and empty calories
The macronutrients (carbohydrates, protein, and fat) provide the body with calories for energy. Micronutrients are vitamins and minerals necessary for health, but they do not provide calories. Empty calories is a term often used for foods which contain excess calories with little nutritional value (soda and junk foods). When these empty calorie foods make up a large part of the diet, you can gain weight without getting all of the nutrients you need.
Quantity versus quality
When we are hungry, we seek out food. But what and how much we eat is influenced by many factors, including time, convenience, environment, culture, and knowledge. The desire to satisfy our hunger often trumps a desire to make healthy food choices. When you choose quantity and convenience over food quality, you risk consuming empty calories.
Nutrients of concern
Many diets poor in nutrition do not provide adequate calcium. Those who consume sweetened soda often drink them in place of calcium-rich milk. Dark, leafy greens and broccoli are sources for dietary calcium, but vegetables are another major food group that are often missing in poor diets.
The chemicals in plant foods (phytonutrients) are not essential to life, but they have numerous health benefits, including protection against disease. A diet of highly processed foods with few fresh fruits, vegetables, or whole grains can be in short supply of these beneficial plant nutrients.
Malnutrition can affect anyone
Foods composed of empty calories tend to be cheap and quick. This makes low-income populations and those with busy lifestyles especially vulnerable to this “overweight and malnourished” phenomenon. The trick is to plan your meals in advance, which will help you keep your food costs down and help you avoid needing to grab something quick when on the go.